Nainital is a glittering jewel in the Himalyan necklace, blessed with scenic natural spledour and varied natural resources . Dotted with lakes , Nainital has earned the epithet of ‘ Lake District ‘ of India . The most prominent of the lakes is Naini lake ringed by hills . Nainital has a varied topography . Some of the important places in the district are Nainital , Haldwani , Kaladhungi , Ramnagar , Bhowali , Ramgarh , Mukteshwar , Bhimtal , Sattal and Naukuchiatal . Nainital’s unending expense of scenic beauty is nothing short of a romance with awe-inspiring and pristine Mother nature.
Nainital is the headquarter of Nainital District and It is also the divisional Headquarter of Kumaon Division of Uttarakhand State.
Nainital is referred to in the ‘Manas Khand’ of the ‘Skanda Purana’ as the Tri-Rishi-Sarovar,the lake of the three sages, Atri, Pulastya and Pulaha who were reputed to have arrived here on a penitential pilgrimage, and, finding no water to quench their thirst dug a hole and siphoned water into it from Mansarovar the sacred lake in Tibet.
The Second important mythological reference to Nainital is as one of 64 ‘Shakti Peeths’.These centres were created wherever parts of the charred body of Sati fell, when Lord Shiva was carrying around her corpse in grief, It is said that the left eye (Nain) of Sati fell here and this gave rise to patron deity of town Nainital. It is said that the lake is formed in the emerald eye shape. Naina Devi temple is located at the northern end of the lake, thus name of Nainital was derived from Naina and the tal (Lake).
Geography Of District Nainital
In the Uttarakhand, district of Nainital lies in the Kumaon division. To its north is Almora district and to its south lies the Udham Singh Nagar district. Champawat district flanks it in the east and district of Pauri Gahwal is in the west. It is located approximately in between 80º14’ and 78º80’ east longitude and 29º00’ and 29º05’ north latitude . On the northern side lies the Himalayan ranges while on the southern side lies the plains making the resultant climate of the district enjoyable one.
The total geographical area is 4251 Sqr. Kms. Geographically the district is divided in to 2 zones viz. Hilly and Bhabar.The hilly region in outer Himalayas is known to geologists as Krol. The highest peak of the district is Baudhansthali 2623 mts. high near Binayak adjoining Nainital town.The hilly region of the district .The hilly region of the district used to have big & small lakes. Bhimtal ,Sattal, Naukuchiatal,Khurpatal, Nainital, Malwatal, Harishtal , Lokhamtal etc. are known lakes of bigger size.
The foothill area of the district is known as Bhabhar. The name Bhabhar is derived from a tall growing grass growing in the region . The underground water level is very deep in this region .
Kosi is the main river of the district. River Kosi arising out of Koshimool near Kausani flows on the western side of the district. There are number of smaller rivulets like Gaula , Bhakra , Dabka , Baur etc . Most of these have been dammed for irrigation purposes. Nainital district has good received good rainfall in recent years . As per 2011 records total average rainfall of district was 1487.00 MM while total average rainfall up to August 2013 was 1466.40 MM.